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HPT

Hydraulic Profiling Tool


Log Water Injection Pressure which Provides Formation Permeability with Depth in Soil

The HPT (hydraulic profiling tool) is a logging tool that measures the pressure required to inject a flow of water into the soil as the probe is advanced into the subsurface. This injection pressure log is an excellent indicator of formation permeability. In addition to measurement of injection pressure, the HPT can also be used to measure hydrostatic pressure under the zero flow condition. This allows the development of an absolute piezometric pressure profile for the log and prediction of the position of the water table. The piezometric profile can be used to calculate the corrected HPT pressure. This data along with the flow rate can then be used to calculate an estimate of hydraulic conductivity (K) in the saturated formation.

HPT Probe

HPT Overview



What is Geoprobe® Direct Image® HPT?

The Hydraulic Profiling Tool is a logging tool that measures the pressure required to inject a flow of water into the soil as the probe is advanced into the subsurface.  This injection pressure log is an excellent indicator of formation permeability.  In addition to measurement of injection pressure, the HPT can also be used to measure hydrostatic pressure under the zero flow condition.  This allows the development of an absolute piezometric pressure profile for the log and prediction of the position of the water table.  The piezometric profile can be used to calculate the corrected HPT pressure.  This data along with the flow rate can then be used to calculate an estimate of hydraulic conductivity (K) in the saturated formation.

Graphs (left to right) electrical conductivity (EC), HPT injection pressure (top axis/blue fill) with the absolute piezometric pressure profile plotted (bottom axis/black line) and HPT flow rate.  The bottom three triangles on the absolute piezometric pressure line represent hydrostatic pressure measurement points.  The inflection point (red dot) in the absolute piezometric pressure line is the predicted water table.

Typical HPT Log: Graphs (left to right) electrical conductivity (EC), HPT injection pressure (top axis/blue fill) with the absolute piezometric pressure profile plotted (bottom axis/black line) and HPT flow rate. The bottom three triangles on the absolute piezometric pressure line represent hydrostatic pressure measurement points. The inflection point (red dot) in the absolute piezometric pressure line is the predicted water table.

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Principles of Operation

A general equipment setup is displayed below. Water from a supply tank (A) is pumped by the HPT controller (B) at a set flow rate through the trunkline (D) and into the formation after passing through the injection screen (F). Measurement of the injection pressure in the HPT system is made using a downhole pressure transducer (E).  Use of a transducer in the downhole position allows measurement of the injection pressure at the HPT screen only and excludes frictional losses through the flow tube of the HPT trunkline.  The downhole transducer position is also necessary for making hydrostatic pressure measurements at the probe.

Schematic of primary HPT components and operation:

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Example Logs

HPT logs can provide a clear understanding of the subsurface lithology by combining soil electrical conductivity (EC) with HPT injection pressure.  With the EC a small voltage is past between dipoles on the probe moving through the soil and pore fluids.  Depending upon the soil mineralogy and pore fluid conductance a relative electrical conductivity is measured.  HPT measures the pressure required to inject a set flow of water into the formation which is independent of the subsurface chemistry.

The logs below (Figures 1 and 2) include (from left to right) an EC, HPT injection pressure (top axis) with absolute piezometric pressure (bottom axis), HPT line pressure, HPT flow rate and estimated hydraulic conductivity (K).  The absolute piezometric pressure and estimated hydraulic conductivity graphs are calculated parameters typically performed after the logs is complete.  These graphs use dissipation test information (dissipation of HPT Injection pressure leaving atmospheric and hydrostatic pressure) in their calculations for determining the static water level and K.  The rest of the graphs are measured in-situ during tool advancement.  
 

An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally finer grained/lower permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and coarser grained soils with higher permeability in the lower portion of the log.

Figure 1: An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally finer grained/lower permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and coarser grained soils with higher permeability in the lower portion of the log.

An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally coarser grained/higher permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and finer grained soils with lower permeability in the lower portion of the log.

Figure 2: An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally coarser grained/higher permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and finer grained soils with lower permeability in the lower portion of the log.

EC and HPT graphs typically respond in a similar fashion – sands and gravels have lower conductivity and are highly permeability resulting in low HPT injection pressure.  As soil particle size decreases, EC results will typically increase as will HPT injection pressure because of the lower permeability of these soils.  

When these sensors do not respond in the same manner there is typically a reason for this.  Figure 3 is a site cross section of HPT logs displaying EC and HPT pressure of each log overlaid.  In this cross section view, the first log shows EC is not responding well to the transition from sand to the silty-clay formation seen at around 22 ft.  This is likely due to the mineral makeup of the soil, however on the inner 4 logs EC displays a significant rise just before the HPT pressure increase and then a fall when HPT pressure is still high.  This is a classic display of an ionic plume which was the result of ionic remediation fluids injected upgradient of these logs.

An HPT log cross section from a site showing EC (brown fill) and HPT pressure (blue line - secondary axis).

Figure 3: An HPT log cross section from a site showing EC (brown fill) and HPT pressure (blue line - secondary axis).

DI Viewer is a free program downloadable from the link below which allows the user to display any of the Direct Image® log types (MIP, OIP, HPT, EC).  With this program the user can display the raw data .zip files of each saved graph of an individual log in single log view or compare them to other logs using the overlay and cross sectional view functions.  Log specific QA data is also accessible with this software which also allows one to print or export the logs data for 3D modeling or into .jpg or .png files.

> DI Viewer Download Page

Tooling & Instrumentation


HPT Equipment

Geoprobe Systems® manufactures all of the equipment needed for HPT logging. This equipment can be divided into two basic categories: surface instrumentation (HPT controller and data acquisition), and downhole probes (including probes, trunklines, connectors, etc.).

A basic set of HPT instruments is shown in Figure 4 as described below. 

  1. FI6000: Data acquisition instrument, acquires data from the MIP system’s detectors and sensors and relays it to the computer via a USB connection. The FI6000 is the general data acquisition instrument used in all Geoprobe® DI logging systems (EC and HPT). It also provides the electrical conductivity measurement system associated with MIP.
  2. K6300 Series HPT Controller: This instrument regulates the water injection flow and measures the injection pressure to the HPT trunkline and probe. Data from this controller is sent to the FI6000 via a data cable.
HPT Instrumentation

Figure 4: HPT Instrumentation

Basic downhole HPT equipment is shown in Figure 5. There are many variations and combinations of this tooling, depending on the size of the rod string being driven into the ground and the lithology or contaminate sensors that are to be used in combination with the HPT.  The standard, most commonly deployed components are shown below:

  1. K6052 HPT probe (MN226553): Removable HPT injection screen and Wenner electrical conductivity array.
  2. HPT Injection Pressure Sensor (MN 210091).
  3. HPT Trunkline (MN 214095): 150 ft. (46m) This has electrical wires and Water injection line.
  4. Connection section and drive head. HPT sensor, water line and electrical connections are carried in this section.
  5. Probe rods. Geoprobe® 1.75-inch (44mm) and 1.5-inch (38mm) rods are the most commonly used for HPT logging. Successive sections of these rods are added to push or percussion drive the probe to depth.
HPT Probe, Pressure Sensor (ran inside the connection tube), connection tube and drive head which connect the drive rods. The HPT trunkline connects the down-hole probe to the up-hole instruments.

Figure 5: HPT Probe, Pressure Sensor (ran inside the connection tube), connection tube and drive head which connect the drive rods. The HPT trunkline connects the down-hole probe to the up-hole instruments.

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MIHPT

HPT is combined with MIP in the MIHPT logging tool to provide mapping of hydrocarbon and chlorinated VOCs contaminantes while providing context of soil lithology and permeability to understand migration pathways.
> Learn More: MIP

MIHPT Probe:

Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Detectors: PID, FID, XSD and Estimated K

MIHPT Log: Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Detectors: PID, FID, XSD and Estimated K


OIHPT

HPT is combined with OIP-UV (MN 227466) in this logging tool to provide logging of hydrocarbon NAPL Fuels and Oil.  HPT is combined with OIP-G (MN 231346) for logging of creosote and coal tars.  These tools log NAPL level hydrocarbon contaminants while providing context of soil lithology and permeability to understand migration pathways.
> Learn More: OIP

OIHPT Probe (UV or G):

Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Fluorescence % area, Displayed Fluorescence image from 24.20ft

OIHPT Log : Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Fluorescence % area, Displayed Fluorescence image from 24.20ft


HPT-CPT

The HPT has been used as a surrogate for U(2) pore pressure measurements, especially in unsaturated zones.  The HPT is also a dependable indicator of seepage zones from dams and levees.  The HPT sub for CPT usage includes the EC dipole, HPT pressure sensor and injection port.
> Learn More: CPT

HPT sub for use with CPT Cone:

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HPT-GWS

The KS8050 (MN 216100) 2.25in. (57.2mm) HPT groundwater sampling probe can be advanced to generate an HPT-EC log and stop along the way to collect groundwater samples where desired.  This can be done at mulitple locations in a log.  The KS8052 operates using a standard HPT trunkline along with a 1/4in. OD water sample line strung up in 2.25in. probe rods.  When groundwater samples are desired the operator will stop and perform a dissipation test and then begin sampling through the return water line which may include use of a mechanical bladder pump or peristalitic pump if the water table is shallow enough.  When the sample has been collected the operator will restart the HPT water injection and resume logging.

HPT-Groundwater Sampler:

HPT GWS Sampling Setup:


1.75GW Profiler

The GW Profiler allows you to create an injection pressure log and be able to stop and sample groundwater at specific intervals.  This sampler operates with 1.75in. probe rods and uses two 1/4in. water lines one as an injection line and one as a sample line.  Currently this tool does not operate with a downhole HPT sensor or an EC dipole.   

GW Profiler 1.75 Probe:

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Specifications


Specs
Data Acquisition Rate5 Hz
Recommended Probing Rate2 cm/sec
Conductivity ArrayWenner
Working Depth (max)120 ft (36.6 m) below groundwater

Pressure Transducer
Operating Pressure0-101 psia
Maximum Overpressure400 psia
Full Scale Accuracy2.5 percent

Flow Meter
Flow Rate (max)0-1 Lpm
Pressure (max)500 psig
Full Scale Accuracy+/- 1 percent
Full Scale Repeatability +/- 0.2 percent

Flow Controller
Maximum Flow Rate0-1 Lpm
Maximum Pressure500 psig
Stability of Setpoint 2 percent +/- 0.5 percent
Repeatability0.3 percent

FAQ's


Purchasing a System


> Download SOP

HPT

Hydraulic Profiling Tool

HPT Log

HPT Log

HPT Log Cross Section of an Ionic Plume

HPT Log Cross Section of an Ionic Plume

HPT Log

HPT Log

HPT Logging in China

HPT Logging in China

HPT Log
HPT Log Cross Section of an Ionic Plume
HPT Log
HPT Logging in China

Log Water Injection Pressure which Provides Formation Permeability with Depth in Soil

The HPT (hydraulic profiling tool) is a logging tool that measures the pressure required to inject a flow of water into the soil as the probe is advanced into the subsurface. This injection pressure log is an excellent indicator of formation permeability. In addition to measurement of injection pressure, the HPT can also be used to measure hydrostatic pressure under the zero flow condition. This allows the development of an absolute piezometric pressure profile for the log and prediction of the position of the water table. The piezometric profile can be used to calculate the corrected HPT pressure. This data along with the flow rate can then be used to calculate an estimate of hydraulic conductivity (K) in the saturated formation.

❯ Contact Us

> Download SOP

HPT

Hydraulic Profiling Tool


Log Water Injection Pressure which Provides Formation Permeability with Depth in Soil

The HPT (hydraulic profiling tool) is a logging tool that measures the pressure required to inject a flow of water into the soil as the probe is advanced into the subsurface. This injection pressure log is an excellent indicator of formation permeability. In addition to measurement of injection pressure, the HPT can also be used to measure hydrostatic pressure under the zero flow condition. This allows the development of an absolute piezometric pressure profile for the log and prediction of the position of the water table. The piezometric profile can be used to calculate the corrected HPT pressure. This data along with the flow rate can then be used to calculate an estimate of hydraulic conductivity (K) in the saturated formation.

❯ Contact Us

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HPT Overview

Click on a section below to learn more about HPT.

HPT Probe

What is Geoprobe® Direct Image® HPT?

  • HPT produces a detailed log of relative formation permeability
  • Can be used to estimate hydraulic conductivity in the saturated zone
  • Logs HPT injection pressure, flow rate and electrical conductivity
  • Use pressure dissipation tests to measure hydrostatic pressure
  • Determine piezometric profile and water table depth
  • Can be used to map salt and brine contaminant plumes
  • HPT logging is easy to learn and operate
  • Interpretation of HPT logs is straight forward and intuitive

The Hydraulic Profiling Tool is a logging tool that measures the pressure required to inject a flow of water into the soil as the probe is advanced into the subsurface.  This injection pressure log is an excellent indicator of formation permeability.  In addition to measurement of injection pressure, the HPT can also be used to measure hydrostatic pressure under the zero flow condition.  This allows the development of an absolute piezometric pressure profile for the log and prediction of the position of the water table.  The piezometric profile can be used to calculate the corrected HPT pressure.  This data along with the flow rate can then be used to calculate an estimate of hydraulic conductivity (K) in the saturated formation.

Graphs (left to right) electrical conductivity (EC), HPT injection pressure (top axis/blue fill) with the absolute piezometric pressure profile plotted (bottom axis/black line) and HPT flow rate.  The bottom three triangles on the absolute piezometric pressure line represent hydrostatic pressure measurement points.  The inflection point (red dot) in the absolute piezometric pressure line is the predicted water table.

Typical HPT Log: Graphs (left to right) electrical conductivity (EC), HPT injection pressure (top axis/blue fill) with the absolute piezometric pressure profile plotted (bottom axis/black line) and HPT flow rate. The bottom three triangles on the absolute piezometric pressure line represent hydrostatic pressure measurement points. The inflection point (red dot) in the absolute piezometric pressure line is the predicted water table.

A general equipment setup is displayed below. Water from a supply tank (A) is pumped by the HPT controller (B) at a set flow rate through the trunkline (D) and into the formation after passing through the injection screen (F). Measurement of the injection pressure in the HPT system is made using a downhole pressure transducer (E).  Use of a transducer in the downhole position allows measurement of the injection pressure at the HPT screen only and excludes frictional losses through the flow tube of the HPT trunkline.  The downhole transducer position is also necessary for making hydrostatic pressure measurements at the probe.

Schematic of primary HPT components and operation:

HPT logs can provide a clear understanding of the subsurface lithology by combining soil electrical conductivity (EC) with HPT injection pressure.  With the EC a small voltage is past between dipoles on the probe moving through the soil and pore fluids.  Depending upon the soil mineralogy and pore fluid conductance a relative electrical conductivity is measured.  HPT measures the pressure required to inject a set flow of water into the formation which is independent of the subsurface chemistry.

The logs below (Figures 1 and 2) include (from left to right) an EC, HPT injection pressure (top axis) with absolute piezometric pressure (bottom axis), HPT line pressure, HPT flow rate and estimated hydraulic conductivity (K).  The absolute piezometric pressure and estimated hydraulic conductivity graphs are calculated parameters typically performed after the logs is complete.  These graphs use dissipation test information (dissipation of HPT Injection pressure leaving atmospheric and hydrostatic pressure) in their calculations for determining the static water level and K.  The rest of the graphs are measured in-situ during tool advancement.  
 

An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally finer grained/lower permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and coarser grained soils with higher permeability in the lower portion of the log.

Figure 1: An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally finer grained/lower permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and coarser grained soils with higher permeability in the lower portion of the log.

An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally coarser grained/higher permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and finer grained soils with lower permeability in the lower portion of the log.

Figure 2: An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally coarser grained/higher permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and finer grained soils with lower permeability in the lower portion of the log.

EC and HPT graphs typically respond in a similar fashion – sands and gravels have lower conductivity and are highly permeability resulting in low HPT injection pressure.  As soil particle size decreases, EC results will typically increase as will HPT injection pressure because of the lower permeability of these soils.  

When these sensors do not respond in the same manner there is typically a reason for this.  Figure 3 is a site cross section of HPT logs displaying EC and HPT pressure of each log overlaid.  In this cross section view, the first log shows EC is not responding well to the transition from sand to the silty-clay formation seen at around 22 ft.  This is likely due to the mineral makeup of the soil, however on the inner 4 logs EC displays a significant rise just before the HPT pressure increase and then a fall when HPT pressure is still high.  This is a classic display of an ionic plume which was the result of ionic remediation fluids injected upgradient of these logs.

An HPT log cross section from a site showing EC (brown fill) and HPT pressure (blue line - secondary axis).

Figure 3: An HPT log cross section from a site showing EC (brown fill) and HPT pressure (blue line - secondary axis).

DI Viewer is a free program downloadable from the link below which allows the user to display any of the Direct Image® log types (MIP, OIP, HPT, EC).  With this program the user can display the raw data .zip files of each saved graph of an individual log in single log view or compare them to other logs using the overlay and cross sectional view functions.  Log specific QA data is also accessible with this software which also allows one to print or export the logs data for 3D modeling or into .jpg or .png files.

> DI Viewer Download Page

HPT Probe

HPT Overview


HPT Probe

What is Geoprobe® Direct Image® HPT?

  • HPT produces a detailed log of relative formation permeability
  • Can be used to estimate hydraulic conductivity in the saturated zone
  • Logs HPT injection pressure, flow rate and electrical conductivity
  • Use pressure dissipation tests to measure hydrostatic pressure
  • Determine piezometric profile and water table depth
  • Can be used to map salt and brine contaminant plumes
  • HPT logging is easy to learn and operate
  • Interpretation of HPT logs is straight forward and intuitive

The Hydraulic Profiling Tool is a logging tool that measures the pressure required to inject a flow of water into the soil as the probe is advanced into the subsurface.  This injection pressure log is an excellent indicator of formation permeability.  In addition to measurement of injection pressure, the HPT can also be used to measure hydrostatic pressure under the zero flow condition.  This allows the development of an absolute piezometric pressure profile for the log and prediction of the position of the water table.  The piezometric profile can be used to calculate the corrected HPT pressure.  This data along with the flow rate can then be used to calculate an estimate of hydraulic conductivity (K) in the saturated formation.

Graphs (left to right) electrical conductivity (EC), HPT injection pressure (top axis/blue fill) with the absolute piezometric pressure profile plotted (bottom axis/black line) and HPT flow rate.  The bottom three triangles on the absolute piezometric pressure line represent hydrostatic pressure measurement points.  The inflection point (red dot) in the absolute piezometric pressure line is the predicted water table.

Typical HPT Log: Graphs (left to right) electrical conductivity (EC), HPT injection pressure (top axis/blue fill) with the absolute piezometric pressure profile plotted (bottom axis/black line) and HPT flow rate. The bottom three triangles on the absolute piezometric pressure line represent hydrostatic pressure measurement points. The inflection point (red dot) in the absolute piezometric pressure line is the predicted water table.

Principles of Operation


A general equipment setup is displayed below. Water from a supply tank (A) is pumped by the HPT controller (B) at a set flow rate through the trunkline (D) and into the formation after passing through the injection screen (F). Measurement of the injection pressure in the HPT system is made using a downhole pressure transducer (E).  Use of a transducer in the downhole position allows measurement of the injection pressure at the HPT screen only and excludes frictional losses through the flow tube of the HPT trunkline.  The downhole transducer position is also necessary for making hydrostatic pressure measurements at the probe.

Schematic of primary HPT components and operation:

Example Logs


HPT logs can provide a clear understanding of the subsurface lithology by combining soil electrical conductivity (EC) with HPT injection pressure.  With the EC a small voltage is past between dipoles on the probe moving through the soil and pore fluids.  Depending upon the soil mineralogy and pore fluid conductance a relative electrical conductivity is measured.  HPT measures the pressure required to inject a set flow of water into the formation which is independent of the subsurface chemistry.

The logs below (Figures 1 and 2) include (from left to right) an EC, HPT injection pressure (top axis) with absolute piezometric pressure (bottom axis), HPT line pressure, HPT flow rate and estimated hydraulic conductivity (K).  The absolute piezometric pressure and estimated hydraulic conductivity graphs are calculated parameters typically performed after the logs is complete.  These graphs use dissipation test information (dissipation of HPT Injection pressure leaving atmospheric and hydrostatic pressure) in their calculations for determining the static water level and K.  The rest of the graphs are measured in-situ during tool advancement.  
 

An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally finer grained/lower permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and coarser grained soils with higher permeability in the lower portion of the log.

Figure 1: An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally finer grained/lower permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and coarser grained soils with higher permeability in the lower portion of the log.

An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally coarser grained/higher permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and finer grained soils with lower permeability in the lower portion of the log.

Figure 2: An HPT log includes (from left to right) an EC, HPT Injection Pressure (top axis) with Absolute Piezometric Pressure (bottom axis), HPT Line Pressure, HPT Flow Rate and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivity (K). Comparing EC and HPT pressure graphs we can see there is generally coarser grained/higher permeable soils in the upper portion of this log and finer grained soils with lower permeability in the lower portion of the log.

EC and HPT graphs typically respond in a similar fashion – sands and gravels have lower conductivity and are highly permeability resulting in low HPT injection pressure.  As soil particle size decreases, EC results will typically increase as will HPT injection pressure because of the lower permeability of these soils.  

When these sensors do not respond in the same manner there is typically a reason for this.  Figure 3 is a site cross section of HPT logs displaying EC and HPT pressure of each log overlaid.  In this cross section view, the first log shows EC is not responding well to the transition from sand to the silty-clay formation seen at around 22 ft.  This is likely due to the mineral makeup of the soil, however on the inner 4 logs EC displays a significant rise just before the HPT pressure increase and then a fall when HPT pressure is still high.  This is a classic display of an ionic plume which was the result of ionic remediation fluids injected upgradient of these logs.

An HPT log cross section from a site showing EC (brown fill) and HPT pressure (blue line - secondary axis).

Figure 3: An HPT log cross section from a site showing EC (brown fill) and HPT pressure (blue line - secondary axis).

DI Viewer is a free program downloadable from the link below which allows the user to display any of the Direct Image® log types (MIP, OIP, HPT, EC).  With this program the user can display the raw data .zip files of each saved graph of an individual log in single log view or compare them to other logs using the overlay and cross sectional view functions.  Log specific QA data is also accessible with this software which also allows one to print or export the logs data for 3D modeling or into .jpg or .png files.

> DI Viewer Download Page





Tooling & Instrumentation

Click on a section below to learn more about the tooling for HPT.

Geoprobe Systems® manufactures all of the equipment needed for HPT logging. This equipment can be divided into two basic categories: surface instrumentation (HPT controller and data acquisition), and downhole probes (including probes, trunklines, connectors, etc.).

A basic set of HPT instruments is shown in Figure 4 as described below. 

  1. FI6000: Data acquisition instrument, acquires data from the MIP system’s detectors and sensors and relays it to the computer via a USB connection. The FI6000 is the general data acquisition instrument used in all Geoprobe® DI logging systems (EC and HPT). It also provides the electrical conductivity measurement system associated with MIP.
  2. K6300 Series HPT Controller: This instrument regulates the water injection flow and measures the injection pressure to the HPT trunkline and probe. Data from this controller is sent to the FI6000 via a data cable.
HPT Instrumentation

Figure 4: HPT Instrumentation

Basic downhole HPT equipment is shown in Figure 5. There are many variations and combinations of this tooling, depending on the size of the rod string being driven into the ground and the lithology or contaminate sensors that are to be used in combination with the HPT.  The standard, most commonly deployed components are shown below:

  1. K6052 HPT probe (MN226553): Removable HPT injection screen and Wenner electrical conductivity array.
  2. HPT Injection Pressure Sensor (MN 210091).
  3. HPT Trunkline (MN 214095): 150 ft. (46m) This has electrical wires and Water injection line.
  4. Connection section and drive head. HPT sensor, water line and electrical connections are carried in this section.
  5. Probe rods. Geoprobe® 1.75-inch (44mm) and 1.5-inch (38mm) rods are the most commonly used for HPT logging. Successive sections of these rods are added to push or percussion drive the probe to depth.
HPT Probe, Pressure Sensor (ran inside the connection tube), connection tube and drive head which connect the drive rods. The HPT trunkline connects the down-hole probe to the up-hole instruments.

Figure 5: HPT Probe, Pressure Sensor (ran inside the connection tube), connection tube and drive head which connect the drive rods. The HPT trunkline connects the down-hole probe to the up-hole instruments.

HPT is combined with MIP in the MIHPT logging tool to provide mapping of hydrocarbon and chlorinated VOCs contaminantes while providing context of soil lithology and permeability to understand migration pathways.
> Learn More: MIP

MIHPT Probe:

Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Detectors: PID, FID, XSD and Estimated K

MIHPT Log: Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Detectors: PID, FID, XSD and Estimated K

HPT is combined with OIP-UV (MN 227466) in this logging tool to provide logging of hydrocarbon NAPL Fuels and Oil.  HPT is combined with OIP-G (MN 231346) for logging of creosote and coal tars.  These tools log NAPL level hydrocarbon contaminants while providing context of soil lithology and permeability to understand migration pathways.
> Learn More: OIP

OIHPT Probe (UV or G):

Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Fluorescence % area, Displayed Fluorescence image from 24.20ft

OIHPT Log : Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Fluorescence % area, Displayed Fluorescence image from 24.20ft

The HPT has been used as a surrogate for U(2) pore pressure measurements, especially in unsaturated zones.  The HPT is also a dependable indicator of seepage zones from dams and levees.  The HPT sub for CPT usage includes the EC dipole, HPT pressure sensor and injection port.
> Learn More: CPT

HPT sub for use with CPT Cone:

The KS8050 (MN 216100) 2.25in. (57.2mm) HPT groundwater sampling probe can be advanced to generate an HPT-EC log and stop along the way to collect groundwater samples where desired.  This can be done at mulitple locations in a log.  The KS8052 operates using a standard HPT trunkline along with a 1/4in. OD water sample line strung up in 2.25in. probe rods.  When groundwater samples are desired the operator will stop and perform a dissipation test and then begin sampling through the return water line which may include use of a mechanical bladder pump or peristalitic pump if the water table is shallow enough.  When the sample has been collected the operator will restart the HPT water injection and resume logging.

HPT-Groundwater Sampler:

HPT GWS Sampling Setup:

The GW Profiler allows you to create an injection pressure log and be able to stop and sample groundwater at specific intervals.  This sampler operates with 1.75in. probe rods and uses two 1/4in. water lines one as an injection line and one as a sample line.  Currently this tool does not operate with a downhole HPT sensor or an EC dipole.   

GW Profiler 1.75 Probe:

Tooling & Instrumentation


HPT Equipment

Geoprobe Systems® manufactures all of the equipment needed for HPT logging. This equipment can be divided into two basic categories: surface instrumentation (HPT controller and data acquisition), and downhole probes (including probes, trunklines, connectors, etc.).

A basic set of HPT instruments is shown in Figure 4 as described below. 

  1. FI6000: Data acquisition instrument, acquires data from the MIP system’s detectors and sensors and relays it to the computer via a USB connection. The FI6000 is the general data acquisition instrument used in all Geoprobe® DI logging systems (EC and HPT). It also provides the electrical conductivity measurement system associated with MIP.
  2. K6300 Series HPT Controller: This instrument regulates the water injection flow and measures the injection pressure to the HPT trunkline and probe. Data from this controller is sent to the FI6000 via a data cable.
HPT Instrumentation

Figure 4: HPT Instrumentation

Basic downhole HPT equipment is shown in Figure 5. There are many variations and combinations of this tooling, depending on the size of the rod string being driven into the ground and the lithology or contaminate sensors that are to be used in combination with the HPT.  The standard, most commonly deployed components are shown below:

  1. K6052 HPT probe (MN226553): Removable HPT injection screen and Wenner electrical conductivity array.
  2. HPT Injection Pressure Sensor (MN 210091).
  3. HPT Trunkline (MN 214095): 150 ft. (46m) This has electrical wires and Water injection line.
  4. Connection section and drive head. HPT sensor, water line and electrical connections are carried in this section.
  5. Probe rods. Geoprobe® 1.75-inch (44mm) and 1.5-inch (38mm) rods are the most commonly used for HPT logging. Successive sections of these rods are added to push or percussion drive the probe to depth.
HPT Probe, Pressure Sensor (ran inside the connection tube), connection tube and drive head which connect the drive rods. The HPT trunkline connects the down-hole probe to the up-hole instruments.

Figure 5: HPT Probe, Pressure Sensor (ran inside the connection tube), connection tube and drive head which connect the drive rods. The HPT trunkline connects the down-hole probe to the up-hole instruments.

MIHPT

HPT is combined with MIP in the MIHPT logging tool to provide mapping of hydrocarbon and chlorinated VOCs contaminantes while providing context of soil lithology and permeability to understand migration pathways.
> Learn More: MIP

MIHPT Probe:

Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Detectors: PID, FID, XSD and Estimated K

MIHPT Log: Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Detectors: PID, FID, XSD and Estimated K

OIHPT

HPT is combined with OIP-UV (MN 227466) in this logging tool to provide logging of hydrocarbon NAPL Fuels and Oil.  HPT is combined with OIP-G (MN 231346) for logging of creosote and coal tars.  These tools log NAPL level hydrocarbon contaminants while providing context of soil lithology and permeability to understand migration pathways.
> Learn More: OIP

OIHPT Probe (UV or G):

Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Fluorescence % area, Displayed Fluorescence image from 24.20ft

OIHPT Log : Graphs (Left to Right): EC, HPT Pressure (axis one) Absolute Piezometric Pressure (axis two), Fluorescence % area, Displayed Fluorescence image from 24.20ft

HPT-CPT

The HPT has been used as a surrogate for U(2) pore pressure measurements, especially in unsaturated zones.  The HPT is also a dependable indicator of seepage zones from dams and levees.  The HPT sub for CPT usage includes the EC dipole, HPT pressure sensor and injection port.
> Learn More: CPT

HPT sub for use with CPT Cone:

HPT-GWS

The KS8050 (MN 216100) 2.25in. (57.2mm) HPT groundwater sampling probe can be advanced to generate an HPT-EC log and stop along the way to collect groundwater samples where desired.  This can be done at mulitple locations in a log.  The KS8052 operates using a standard HPT trunkline along with a 1/4in. OD water sample line strung up in 2.25in. probe rods.  When groundwater samples are desired the operator will stop and perform a dissipation test and then begin sampling through the return water line which may include use of a mechanical bladder pump or peristalitic pump if the water table is shallow enough.  When the sample has been collected the operator will restart the HPT water injection and resume logging.

HPT-Groundwater Sampler:

HPT GWS Sampling Setup:

1.75GW Profiler

The GW Profiler allows you to create an injection pressure log and be able to stop and sample groundwater at specific intervals.  This sampler operates with 1.75in. probe rods and uses two 1/4in. water lines one as an injection line and one as a sample line.  Currently this tool does not operate with a downhole HPT sensor or an EC dipole.   

GW Profiler 1.75 Probe:

Videos



Resources

Click on a section below to view information.




HPT Sensor Connection Tutorial

Literature Type: Technical Documents
Download File: File hpt_probe_connections_rev_1_0.pdf





EC Test Load Instructions

Literature Type: Technical Documents
Download File: File ec_test_load_instructions_mk3167_0.pdf






HPT SOP

Literature Type: SOPs Technical Documents
Download File: File HPT_SOP_mk3010_0115.pdf





HPT E-Specs

Literature Type: E-Specs Technical Documents
Download File: File ps_2013_di_hpt_0.pdf





Tech Note: The Importance of Response Testing

Literature Type: Technical Documents
Download File: File di_response_testing_0.pdf





Tech Guide for Estimating K using HPT

Literature Type: Technical Documents
Download File: File tech_guide_estk_v5_0.pdf





Stringpot Troubleshooting

Literature Type: Technical Documents
Download File: File stringpot_troubleshooting_0.pdf



HPT Log

HPT Log

HPT Log Cross Section of an Ionic Plume

HPT Log Cross Section of an Ionic Plume

HPT Log

HPT Log

HPT Logging in China

HPT Logging in China

Specs
Data Acquisition Rate5 Hz
Recommended Probing Rate2 cm/sec
Conductivity ArrayWenner
Working Depth (max)120 ft (36.6 m) below groundwater
Pressure Transducer
Operating Pressure0-101 psia
Maximum Overpressure400 psia
Full Scale Accuracy2.5 percent
Flow Meter
Flow Rate (max)0-1 Lpm
Pressure (max)500 psig
Full Scale Accuracy+/- 1 percent
Full Scale Repeatability +/- 0.2 percent
Flow Controller
Maximum Flow Rate0-1 Lpm
Maximum Pressure500 psig
Stability of Setpoint 2 percent +/- 0.5 percent
Repeatability0.3 percent

Customer Stories


As featured in
The Probing Times

Last summer Wes McCall and Geoprobe® summer intern Mateus Evald conducted field tests with the Hydraulic Profiling Tool–Groundwater Sampler (HPT-GWS) in a local alluvial aquifer in Kansas. Their test results provide a good example of how to use HPT log data to identify brine impact on a fresh water aquifer.



> Read More
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